The gyrotron is a microwave oscillator based on the principle of electron cyclotron maser instability. The microwave power is taken from the relativistic centrifugal motion of the electrons caused by an axial magnetic field. The term "gyrotron" derives from the Greek words "gyros = gyro" and "electron". Gyrotrons operate effectively in the frequency range from 5 GHz to 170 GHz with output powers of a few megawatts. When operating with a harmonic, microwaves in the watt range can be generated up to a THz.
The interaction analysis and components group of the IHM mainly develops simulation tools to realistically describe the behaviour of a gyrotron. The propagation of an accelerated electron beam in a magnetic field, its interaction with a microwave field and finally the impact of the electrons on the collector are taken into account. Further simulation programs deal with the design of quasi-optical components for the optimal coupling of the microwave out of the gyrotron.